The Proprietary System Variables and Syntaxes in TiDB

On the basis of MySQL variables and syntaxes, TiDB has defined some specific system variables and syntaxes to optimize performance.

System variable

Variables can be set with the SET statement, for example:

set @@tidb_distsql_scan_concurrency = 10

If you need to set the global variable, run:

set @@global.tidb_distsql_scan_concurrency = 10

tidb_snapshot

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: "”
  • This variable is used to set the time point at which the data is read by the session. For example, when you set the variable to “2017-11-11 20:20:20” or a TSO number like “400036290571534337”, the current session reads the data of this moment.

tidb_import_data

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 0
  • This variable indicates whether to import data from the dump file currently.
  • To speed up importing, the unique index constraint is not checked when the variable is set to 1.
  • This variable is only used by Lightning. Do not modify it.

tidb_opt_agg_push_down

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 0
  • This variable is used to set whether the optimizer executes the optimization operation of pushing down the aggregate function to the position before Join.
  • When the aggregate operation is slow in query, you can set the variable value to 1.

tidb_opt_insubquery_unfold

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 0
  • This variable is used to set whether the optimizer executes the optimization operation of unfolding the “in-” subquery.

tidb_build_stats_concurrency

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 4
  • This variable is used to set the concurrency of executing the ANALYZE statement.
  • When the variable is set to a larger value, the execution performance of other queries is affected.

tidb_checksum_table_concurrency

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 4
  • This variable is used to set the scan index concurrency of executing the ADMIN CHECKSUM TABLE statement.
  • When the variable is set to a larger value, the execution performance of other queries is affected.

tidb_current_ts

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 0
  • This variable is read-only. It is used to obtain the timestamp of the current transaction.

tidb_config

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: "”
  • This variable is read-only. It is used to obtain the configuration information of the current TiDB server.

tidb_distsql_scan_concurrency

  • Scope: SESSION | GLOBAL
  • Default value: 15
  • This variable is used to set the concurrency of the scan operation.
  • Use a bigger value in OLAP scenarios, and a smaller value in OLTP scenarios.
  • For OLAP scenarios, the maximum value cannot exceed the number of CPU cores of all the TiKV nodes.

tidb_index_lookup_size

  • Scope: SESSION | GLOBAL
  • Default value: 20000
  • This variable is used to set the batch size of the index lookup operation.
  • Use a bigger value in OLAP scenarios, and a smaller value in OLTP scenarios.

tidb_index_lookup_concurrency

  • Scope: SESSION | GLOBAL
  • Default value: 4
  • This variable is used to set the concurrency of the index lookup operation.
  • Use a bigger value in OLAP scenarios, and a smaller value in OLTP scenarios.

tidb_index_lookup_join_concurrency

  • Scope: SESSION | GLOBAL
  • Default value: 4
  • This variable is used to set the concurrency of the index lookup join algorithm.

tidb_hash_join_concurrency

  • Scope: SESSION | GLOBAL
  • Default value: 5
  • This variable is used to set the concurrency of the hash join algorithm.

tidb_index_serial_scan_concurrency

  • Scope: SESSION | GLOBAL
  • Default value: 1
  • This variable is used to set the concurrency of the serial scan operation.
  • Use a bigger value in OLAP scenarios, and a smaller value in OLTP scenarios.

tidb_projection_concurrency

  • Scope: SESSION | GLOBAL
  • Default value: 4
  • This variable is used to set the concurrency of the Projection operator.

tidb_hashagg_partial_concurrency

  • Scope: SESSION | GLOBAL
  • Default value: 4
  • This variable is used to set the concurrency of executing the concurrent hash aggregation algorithm in the partial phase.
  • When the parameter of the aggregate function is not distinct, HashAgg is run concurrently and respectively in two phases - the partial phase and the final phase.

tidb_hashagg_final_concurrency

  • Scope: SESSION | GLOBAL
  • Default value: 4
  • This variable is used to set the concurrency of executing the concurrent hash aggregation algorithm in the final phase.
  • When the parameter of the aggregate function is not distinct, HashAgg is run concurrently and respectively in two phases - the partial phase and the final phase.

tidb_index_join_batch_size

  • Scope: SESSION | GLOBAL
  • Default value: 25000
  • This variable is used to set the batch size of the index lookup join operation.
  • Use a bigger value in OLAP scenarios, and a smaller value in OLTP scenarios.

tidb_skip_utf8_check

  • Scope: SESSION | GLOBAL
  • Default value: 0
  • This variable is used to set whether to skip UTF-8 validation.
  • Validating UTF-8 characters affects the performance. When you are sure that the input characters are valid UTF-8 characters, you can set the variable value to 1.

tidb_batch_insert

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 0
  • This variable is used to set whether to divide the inserted data automatically. It is valid only when autocommit is enabled.
  • When inserting a large amount of data, you can set the variable value to true. Then the inserted data is automatically divided into multiple batches and each batch is inserted by a single transaction.

tidb_batch_delete

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 0
  • This variable is used to set whether to divide the data for deletion automatically. It is valid only when autocommit is enabled.
  • When deleting a large amount of data, you can set the variable value to true. Then the data for deletion is automatically divided into multiple batches and each batch is deleted by a single transaction.

tidb_dml_batch_size

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 20000
  • This variable is used to set the automatically divided batch size of the data for insertion/deletion. It is only valid when tidb_batch_insert or tidb_batch_delete is enabled.
  • When the data size of a single row is very large, the overall data size of 20 thousand rows exceeds the size limit for a single transaction. In this case, set the variable to a smaller value.

tidb_max_chunk_size

  • Scope: SESSION | GLOBAL
  • Default value: 1024
  • This variable is used to set the maximum number of rows in a chunk during the execution process.

tidb_mem_quota_query

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 32 GB
  • This variable is used to set the threshold value of memory quota for a query.
  • If the memory quota of a query during execution exceeds the threshold value, TiDB performs the operation designated by the OOMAction option in the configuration file.

tidb_mem_quota_hashjoin

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 32 GB
  • This variable is used to set the threshold value of memory quota for the HashJoin operator.
  • If the memory quota of the HashJoin operator during execution exceeds the threshold value, TiDB performs the operation designated by the OOMAction option in the configuration file.

tidb_mem_quota_mergejoin

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 32 GB
  • This variable is used to set the threshold value of memory quota for the MergeJoin operator.
  • If the memory quota of the MergeJoin operator during execution exceeds the threshold value, TiDB performs the operation designated by the OOMAction option in the configuration file.

tidb_mem_quota_sort

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 32 GB
  • This variable is used to set the threshold value of memory quota for the Sort operator.
  • If the memory quota of the Sort operator during execution exceeds the threshold value, TiDB performs the operation designated by the OOMAction option in the configuration file.

tidb_mem_quota_topn

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 32 GB
  • This variable is used to set the threshold value of memory quota for the TopN operator.
  • If the memory quota of the TopN operator during execution exceeds the threshold value, TiDB performs the operation designated by the OOMAction option in the configuration file.

tidb_mem_quota_indexlookupreader

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 32 GB
  • This variable is used to set the threshold value of memory quota for the IndexLookupReader operator.
  • If the memory quota of the IndexLookupReader operator during execution exceeds the threshold value, TiDB performs the operation designated by the OOMAction option in the configuration file.

tidb_mem_quota_indexlookupjoin

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 32 GB
  • This variable is used to set the threshold value of memory quota for the IndexLookupJoin operator.
  • If the memory quota of the IndexLookupJoin operator during execution exceeds the threshold value, TiDB performs the operation designated by the OOMAction option in the configuration file.

tidb_mem_quota_nestedloopapply

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 32 GB
  • This variable is used to set the threshold value of memory quota for the NestedLoopApply operator.
  • If the memory quota of the NestedLoopApply operator during execution exceeds the threshold value, TiDB performs the operation designated by the OOMAction option in the configuration file.

tidb_general_log

  • Scope: SERVER
  • Default value: 0
  • This variable is used to set whether to record all the SQL statements in the log.

tidb_enable_streaming

  • Scope: SERVER
  • Default value: 0
  • This variable is used to set whether to enable Streaming.

tidb_retry_limit

  • Scope: SESSION | GLOBAL
  • Default value: 10
  • When a transaction encounters retriable errors, such as transaction conflicts and TiKV busy, this transaction can be re-executed. This variable is used to set the maximum number of the retries.

tidb_disable_txn_auto_retry

  • Scope: SESSION | GLOBAL
  • Default: 0
  • This variable is used to set whether to disable automatic retry of explicit transactions. If you set this variable to 1, the transaction does not retry automatically. If there is a conflict, the transaction needs to be retried at the application layer. To decide whether you need to disable automatic retry, see description of optimistic transactions.

tidb_enable_table_partition

  • Scope: SESSION
  • Default value: 0
  • This variable is used to set whether to enable the TABLE PARTITION feature.

tidb_backoff_lock_fast

  • Scope: SESSION | GLOBAL
  • Default value: 100
  • This variable is used to set the backoff time when the read request meets a lock.

tidb_ddl_reorg_worker_cnt

  • Scope: SESSION | GLOBAL
  • Default value: 16
  • This variable is used to set the concurrency of the DDL operation in the re-organize phase.

tidb_ddl_reorg_priority

  • Scope: SESSION | GLOBAL
  • Default value: PRIORITY_NORMAL
  • This variable is used to set the priority of executing the ADD INDEX operation in the re-organize phase.
  • You can set the value of this variable to PRIORITY_LOW, PRIORITY_NORMAL or PRIORITY_HIGH.

Optimizer Hint

On the basis of MySQL’s Optimizer Hint Syntax, TiDB adds some proprietary Hint syntaxes. When using the Hint syntax, the TiDB optimizer will try to use the specific algorithm, which performs better than the default algorithm in some scenarios.

The Hint syntax is included in comments like /*+ xxx */, and in MySQL client versions earlier than 5.7.7, the comment is removed by default. If you want to use the Hint syntax in these earlier versions, add the --comments option when starting the client. For example: mysql -h 127.0.0.1 -P 4000 -uroot --comments.

TIDB_SMJ(t1, t2)

SELECT /*+ TIDB_SMJ(t1, t2) */ * from t1, t2 where t1.id = t2.id

This variable is used to remind the optimizer to use the Sort Merge Join algorithm. This algorithm takes up less memory, but takes longer to execute. It is recommended if the data size is too large, or there’s insufficient system memory.

TIDB_INLJ(t1, t2)

SELECT /*+ TIDB_INLJ(t1, t2) */ * from t1, t2 where t1.id = t2.id

This variable is used to remind the optimizer to use the Index Nested Loop Join algorithm. In some scenarios, this algorithm runs faster and takes up fewer system resources, but may be slower and takes up more system resources in some other scenarios. You can try to use this algorithm in scenarios where the result-set is less than 10,000 rows after the outer table is filtered by the WHERE condition. The parameter in TIDB_INLJ() is the candidate table for the driving table (external table) when generating the query plan. That means, TIDB_INLJ (t1) will only consider using t1 as the driving table to create a query plan.

TIDB_HJ(t1, t2)

SELECT /*+ TIDB_HJ(t1, t2) */ * from t1, t2 where t1.id = t2.id

This variable is used to remind the optimizer to use the Hash Join algorithm. This algorithm executes threads concurrently. It runs faster but takes up more memory.